Distribution, Competition, and Antitrust / IP Law

Can My Supplier Refuse to Sell Products to Me?

Supply Chain

Wholesalers, distributors, and retailers are dependent upon their suppliers for a supply of products. What happens when your supplier decides it no longer wants to deal with you? Is that lawful?

The answer, of course, depends on the facts. Let’s break the question down into various possibilities. The main dividing line is between unilateral actions by the supplier and “concerted” actions (that is, actions in furtherance of an agreement or understanding with other firms or companies).

I’ll cover basic competition law here; keep in mind that you may also have contract or promissory estoppel claims.

Unilateral action

If your supplier decides all by itself that it no longer wants to do business with you, it is generally within its rights to do so under the competition laws if it does not have “market power.” The concept of market power can become technically complicated, but it essentially means the power to raise prices above competitive levels for some significant period of time. Market power may not be immediately obvious, so we often use market share as a simple proxy for market power, at least to obtain a quick sense of the situation.

So how does this work in practice? If you are buying widgets, your supplier accounts for 90% of the widget market, and it suddenly decides to stop selling to you, it is possible you are looking at an anti-competitive action that might violate the special rules that apply to monopolists or would-be monopolists. You would have to develop more facts to assess the strength of any such argument.

If your supplier’s market share is less than 40%, it is very unlikely that you have such a claim. Above 60% to 70%, you may, and in between 40% and 60% is a bit of a grey area (although some courts have held that certain percentages in this range either are, or are not, sufficient). Details of the market structure (are there significant barriers to entry? are there significant barriers to other firms’ expansion?) may be important.

Just because your supplier has market power and has terminated you, however, does not necessarily mean that you have a good claim. You would still need to prove that the termination has harmed competition; harm to your business is not by itself enough. For example, all things being equal, the termination of one of many distributors may not be competitively significant. On the other hand, if a supplier terminates all distributors that carry products of the supplier’s competitor – and the supplier has market power – then a claim is in theory possible. But again, proving harm to competition can require a detailed understanding of the marketplace and the distribution system.

Lacking market power, however, a supplier generally has the right to do business with whom it pleases. That’s the “American way.”

Concerted action

What if your supplier terminates you because your competitors complain to the supplier? For example, they might complain that your pricing is “too low” and is hurting the market or their business.

The central principle remains that a supplier can do business with whom it likes. It can terminate a distributor for pricing reasons – even if it has previously received complaints from other distributors. Such a sequence of events is not by itself sufficient to establish an unlawful agreement or concerted action.

But if there is evidence of an actual agreement between a supplier and some distributors to terminate another price-cutting distributor in order to raise, maintain, or stabilize pricing, such an agreement may be illegal. Developing the evidence of such an agreement in order to establish something more than dealer complaints followed by a termination can be challenging, but it is not impossible.

Concerted action involving multiple suppliers can also pose competition law issues. Such an agreement may amount to a “group boycott” that could be challenged under federal or state antitrust law.

Summary

Most supplier terminations are entirely lawful. But occasionally some cross the line, either because the supplier has market power and the supplier is exercising it to harm competition, or because the supplier has agreed with other firms to terminate a price-cutting distributor. In such cases, a careful analysis of the facts is required.

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About Howard Ullman

Antitrust, competition, and IP law enthusiast.

Comments

  1. we are a roofing company, a supplier lobbies architects to specify their product on a large job. The company only allows two companies to bid the project where they control the bid pricing. You approach the supplier and ask them to sell to you so that you can bid on the job and they refuse, further, they won’t allow you to get certified to install the product because they only want to deal with the two companies already certified to do the installation. The jobs were for a public entity like a County Purchasing there is no Department which requires strict competitive rules which need to be followed to ensure that there is no price fixing. There could be several problems with this as I see it. What would you think? Are there problems here?

    • Howard Ullman says:

      I think your scenario raises potential issues, but I don’t have enough facts to be certain. Also, I intend this blog to be an educational resource, but I can’t offer specific legal advice through it, for a variety of reasons — for one thing I can’t do work or offer particular opinions before running conflicts checks. If you’re interested in specific advice, feel free to e-mail me.

  2. My wive was refused service by her drapery hardware supplier, the XYZ company (company name is changed). Their owner told my wife that he did not want to serve her and that she should look for another supplier. She did not do anything wrong, either in or outside his store, to warrant such treatment. I believe that the reason he refused her service is that she used to work for the ABC company (company name is changed) run by his wife, and he either wants to get rid of her as possible unwanted competition for his wife’s business, or punish her for quitting her job with his wife, where she was one of the best seamstresses.

    My wife would be happy to shop at another drapery hardware store. However, the XYZ company is a monopolist on the local drapery hardware market. Many hardware companies, like RollEase, sell their products through their local distributors only, and the XYZ company is the only one in our city.

    Is there anything she can reasonably do about this?

    • Howard Ullman says:

      I can’t give legal advice about particular cases here. I can say that antitrust lawsuits are expensive and probably not well-suited to a relatively small (in $$) dispute such as you describe. However, you may wish to consult an attorney re other possible avenues — e.g., approaching some consumer protection agency about the problem, for example.

  3. Joseph Fabiano says:

    I have a store that sells beauty products. My competition is “Ulta” a large beauty store chain. One of the hair products lines I am trying to obtain sells to Ulta, but won’t sell to me, claiming that my store has to be 80% salon services and 20% retail to sell the hair line. Problem is, Ulta is NOT 80% salon and 20% retail and they have the line. Seens unfair that they are placing this rule on me to get the line, yet Ulta does not have to meet the requirement. They will not sell me the product line for that reason. Is this legal. My store is exactly like Ulta in every way. I am just a smaller business. Also, my store is 8 miles from Ulta, not across the street. Seems to be this is so unfair to have one set of rules for me store and none for Ulta. How does that happen?

    • Howard Ullman says:

      Sorry to hear about your difficulties, but this is an informational blog and I can’t give specific legal advice here. You may want to discuss with an attorney.

    • Roberto L. says:

      Joseph, forget the traditional buy wholesale, sell retail with Ulta. If you pick up with a network marketing company, (I use Young Living Essential Oils) for example, you could use our hair care line & sell it to your clients & get paid for life on future orders (residually) rather than retail when you get paid only on that particular sale. Using YL products further enhances your business because it will create time freedom. FYI. I’m only noticing this comment & replying because I have an issue where I sell online only. I have many companies refusing to sell to me because I do not have a retail brick & mortar store front. It really sucks. That’s the only reason I’m even on this site.

      • I found this site while looking for information on what I can do about a company who will not sell to me because i do not have a brick and mortar location.

        I am a licensed optician that owns a mobile dispensing business. I occasionally have a need to order contact lenses for my clients, and the largest contact lens manufacturer, Johnson & Johnson, will not allow me to open an account because my home office is not listed as a commercial address. Anyone have any advice? Or can recommend what KIND of lawyer I would see for advice? I’m not sure who would even be interested….

        • Howard Ullman says:

          There may be a regulatory overlay. You might want to look for a lawyer who represents people in your industry and is familiar with the laws and regulations.

  4. I sell beds, my competition told my supplier if they didn’t drop me as a customer they would pull their bigger account away from the supplier.

  5. I am a distributor for a particular barn owl nesting box company. I’ve been spending thousands of dollars on advertising in the last year and a half and it is finally paying off. My problem is that customers are going directly to my supplier’s web site and he is selling directly to them cutting me out.. How do I protect myself and stop him him from selling to people from my area??

    • Howard Ullman says:

      This blog is informational only . . . I can’t provide legal advice here. You may want to talk to an attorney in your jurisdiction to see if you have any potential contract or other claims.

  6. Jeff Blake says:

    I have a distributor that sells alcoholic beverages to my establishment. The distributor claims I owe for 2 invoices but they cannot provide a signed invoice to back up this claim. I also do not have any history of the delivery. I refused to pay the invoices and the distributor refuses to sell to me now.

    In Florida liquor distributors have 100% market share of the products they sell. A vendor is legally required by the state to buy from the vendor in his area. They are exclusive distributors for the line of the products they carry. The state also requires by law that distributors notify the state of any delinquent invoices by vendors at which point the state issues a no-sale status and no other distributor is allowed to sell to that vendor until all delinquent invoices are paid. . My distributor violated this requirement for whatever reason (lack of documentation) and has decided to take the situation into their own hands by not servicing my account. 30% of my inventory was from them and it is hurting my business because I can no longer offer their products.

    I don’t see how any of this can be legal especially since they violated the state laws and have 100% market share. What are your thoughts?

    Jeff

    • Howard Ullman says:

      Thanks for your question. This blog is informational only — I can’t offer legal advice here. Also, you would likely want to contact an attorney who can practice in Florida. If you do so, you may want to ask whether what the distributor is doing is actually authorized under Florida liquor laws. If not, you might have a claim under those laws. It’s a bit harder for me to see an antitrust issue here — but again I can’t really evaluate the specifics. Good luck.

  7. We have a local smoked and fresh fish business. We get our smoked trout from a supplier and sell it as is. Our competitor, Kolapore Springs, buys it and puts their own label on it. Kolapore has made a name for itself because the owner, Sean Brady, owns a small run down hatchery that could not possibly supply all his customers so he gets it elsewhere and rebrands it as his own. Recently, Kolapore convinced our supplier (North Shore Specialties) to not sell to us anymore because we were selling the same fish at a lower price, and it was obvious to anyone who saw the packaging. As Kolapore is our supplier’s main customer, our supplier sent us an email that he will no longer supply us. No notice to find another product, and an immediate cut off our bottom line as the smoked trout was one of our main products.

    • Howard Ullman says:

      Thanks for your question. This blog is informational only — I can’t offer legal advice here. You may wish to consult an attorney in your jurisdiction.

    • Roy Galbraith says:

      Hey Visionmom, I can’t help you out with your legal question, but Milford Bay Trout Farm makes an awesome smoked trout, and they do lots of wholesale in Ontario. Roy G.

  8. Leon Duvall says:

    Hello I have a mattress store and have had a mattress line for 12 years and now the company pulled the line from me and opened up a competitor next door and now he is the only dealer and didn’t give me a minutes notice would that fall into an antitrust suit? Thank you

    • Howard Ullman says:

      Thanks for your question. This blog is informational only — I can’t offer legal advice here. You may wish to consult an attorney in your jurisdiction.

  9. Commen current dillema (that could use it’s own article, hint 😉 ):

    We are a production company selling camping products. We have used dealers for 20 years but we have our own webshop now and also sell directly. We would like to stop suplying dealers that also sell online or use a different lower profit margin for those dealers.

    We want to support dealers that stock and have products in an actual store and we rather have people buying online from us directly meaning better service and margins.

    Is that legal and possible…? I believe Makita tried it years ago but stopped after their “certified dealers” started selling to little online shops for the little extra profit.

    Can you say, “Sorry, but we don’t supply to webshops”?

    • Howard Ullman says:

      Not to sound like a broken record, but I can’t give specific legal advice on this information-only blog. What I can say (as I’ve said before in various posts) is that suppliers do have a lot of freedom to deal with whom they want — subject to special rules for those with or who may have market power. So, hypothetically speaking, what you’re talking about may indeed be possible — but before doing anything you should consider consulting with counsel.

  10. Our supplier terminated our licensing agreement because we had asked for better prices. Now they remorse and want to be our supplier again. Do we have to go back to them or can we continue as planned and get a new supplier.

    • Howard Ullman says:

      Here’s my usual refrain — this blog is informational only, and I can’t give specific legal advice here. If you have any significant questions, you may want to consult with counsel.

      • Hi there I was about to walk into s shop and had 4min till they closed and the shopkeeper had her hand and foot to stop me going into the shop but one person was in the shop bying some stuff and said once he finish they are closing I said I only be 40sec and she wasn’t talking nice to me at all. Has she got the right to do that to me?

        • Howard Ullman says:

          This blog is informational only, and I can’t give specific legal advice here. If you have any significant questions, you may want to consult with counsel.

          But let’s just say that it’s hard to see any antitrust issues raised by your question.

  11. sandra ber says:

    recently my wholesaler told me they were no longer selling wholesale and I would no longer be able to purchase from them to sell retail, (these products are health care products) but when visiting there Facebook page they had put up a message including they would be supplying selected outlets, I feel this is discrimination and I’ve been lied to. what do you think?

  12. hi there…
    We have distributor contracts with various distributors. We require them to be exclusive to us and not carry competitor products. Would it be legal for us to agree in a contract with the distributor that if they want to carry competitor products, they need our written approval?

    • Howard Ullman says:

      The answer is . . . “it depends.” I can’t give specific advice here in this informational blog. However, for counsel to answer your question, they’d need to consider your market position/market power, among other things.

  13. George Valev says:

    We’re a manufacturer and one new potential customer is asking us to sign an agreement that if they work with us we should “NOT get in touch and/or enter any Business Relationship, either directly and/or indirectly” with their specified competitor. Is such agreement breaking any fair competition rules?

    • Howard Ullman says:

      The answer is “it depends,” and because it depends on the facts, I can’t give specific legal advice through this informational blog. If you have a serious issue, you should always consult with counsel.

  14. Howard how does companies such as Amway. Get away with telling independent contractors they can’t sell their products online. While they offer their products direct to consumers online themselves? They own the distribution of a energy drink that they stopped selling to me because I also was selling online. They are the only manufacture and distributor of this particular brand. They stopped selling to me to protect their 100% share of the energy drink market.

    • Howard Ullman says:

      I can’t offer specific advice in this blog. However, if you read through some other posts, you’ll see that suppliers often can determine who can sell to whom. These are so-called non-price vertical restraints.

  15. I have company in which I sell flooring my supplier upon getting complaint from there 2nd largest company volume wise has suspended my account for violation of a agreement I never signed . They suspended my account and allowed multiple other companies to go on without same penalty.my prices were still above what my areas prices are. When I complained I was told they were protecting the interest of their bigger volume dealer.

  16. I AM THE DISTRIBUTOR FOR READYMADE PRODUCT MY PROBLEM IS OTHER AREA DISTRIBUTOR SALE IN MY AREA HOW TO WRITE LETTER AND COMPLAT TO COMPANY

  17. Is it legal for a company not to sell to group of people? This company sells dental mills,scanners and software to dental labs and dentists. They now will not sell certain software and mills etc to dentists only dental labs where in the past they would. The products they will only sell to dentists have more restrictions and generate the company more money due to software restrictions.

  18. I was just cut off from my supplier for 3D Printers from one of the largest manufacturer’s with a very large and growing market share, although I do not have specifics of what it is exactly. I was able to sell these previously through a legitimate also well know vendor but I (as a new company) feel they are cutting me out because I compete with other retail outlets on these items. If the manufacturer says NO but my Distributor says yes – can the manufacturer request I remove their products from my site? The Distributor is authorized to distribute to resellers with no limitations…

  19. We are a roofing supply company and one of our key suppliers has shut our account at the request of a competitor with the counter threat of shutting their own if they didn’t comply. They have also tried with serveral other of our suppliers. Is this considered unfair practice?

    • Howard Ullman says:

      All depends on the facts and the law in your particular jurisdiction. You may want to consult with a lawyer about your issues.

  20. MICHAEL R BATTISTA says:

    Hello Howard. I have a Retail Business but I also sell Wholesale to some smaller firms on particular lines that I am able to buy directly from manufacturers. My industry has many manufacturers that will not sell Direct to smaller, independent retailers, like myself. The larger wholesalers that they will sell to also have Retail Outlets in direct competition to smaller, independent firms such as mine. So, for these particular lines, I have to purchase from the larger wholesalers and then have to compete against their own retail outlets. I have asked these various manufacturers to sell me directly as I am also a smaller wholesaler of some lines but they refuse making an argument that they, the manufacturers, don’t want to upset their long time wholesalers by selling to me thus putting at risk their sales to these wholesalers. To further muddy the water and to make competition for companies like mine more difficult, these same manufacturers are now developing “Exclusive Lines” that they will only sell to these same wholesalers that will not make these exclusive lines available to companies like mine at all. These same larger wholesalers, one of them in particular, a very large National firm is making deals with manufacturers that I can buy direct from by convincing these manufacturers to provide them with “Exclusive Lines” that are also not available directly to my firm. Do you believe that these practices violate any anti-trust or Anti-competition Laws? I appreciate competition that is fair but these practices seem unfair.

    • Howard Ullman says:

      Michael, I can’t address specific factual situations on this blog. IF you have concerns about these sorts of issues, you may want to consult with counsel.

      • MICHAEL R BATTISTA says:

        Hello again Howard and thank you for responding so quickly. I’m really not looking for legal advice as much as trying to understand if this/these practices seem fair and equitable. As a small business owner, the cost of engaging an attorney simply to determine if a practice is legal or illegal is cost prohibitive. If I felt there was a modicum of chance that my feelings are correct, I would approach other Independent companies to join forces and engage counsel. As you are an expert I’m simply looking for your general (not legal) opinion.

        • Howard Ullman says:

          Sorry, but in asking me to chance this, I’m afraid you’re asking for some sort of specific advice . . . Which I can’t give here. I can say that, generally speaking, suppliers — if they are acting alone — usually have a pretty wide latitude in structuring their distribution systems. Beyond that, if you have questions, I’d be happy to speak with you offline.

  21. I purchased products directly from the manufacturer. Later, they indicated they wanted me to invest 15K more a year in order to be an authorized “e-dealer”. Later, before I invested the additional 15K, they stated that I could no longer sell on Amazon and other e-commerce sites. I still have some inventory left. But, they sent a letter from their lawyer stating I had to stop because of now I am no longer an “Authorized Dealer” and I am using their trademarks illegally.

  22. Howard Moss says:

    For about 7 years I operated a retail FROZEN MEAT outlet. Primarily dealing with one large purveyor best know for their high quality meat. This year the Purveyor opened their own retail frozen meat outlet. They refuse to sell me their product anymore. Indcatiing that they did not want other organizations offering their food product into retail channels.

  23. what if a company provided a service that relied upon a patent to which they owned. Would that dictate they had 100% market share considering they had not licensed the technology? separately, does the market share have to be a global market share or could one make arguments based on a conditional market share, such as entry level items or premium?

    • Howard Ullman says:

      As always I can’t comment on specific fact scenarios or give legal advice here. But, generally speaking, a patent does not by itself establish market power, and sometimes relevant geographic markets are national or even regional.

  24. If you pay a fee to become a dealer of a product and the dealer unilaterally decides not deliver said products to a business anymore. Is there a legal term to research, I can only think David & Goliath as the much larger manufacturer has taken away what was purchased, basically handcuffing the smaller business until a new product can be found.

    • Howard Ullman says:

      As always, I can’t offer legal advice on specific scenarios here, but antitrust aside, the dealer conceivably could have a breach of contract claim or the like. You can also look around on this blog (and elsewhere) for “refusals to deal.”

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