In Apple, Inc. v. Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Case No. 11-CV-01846 (N.D. Cal. May 14, 2012) (Koh, J.), a patent case, the court refused to dismiss Apple’s counterclaims, including a Sherman Act § 2 counterclaim, against Samsung arising out of Samsung’s alleged manipulation of the mobile phone standard-setting process (which alleged resulted in the industry being “locked in” to technology owned and controlled by Samsung). The decision features three holdings of note:
- The court rejected Samsung’s argument that Apple had not pled a relevant antitrust market because it alleged monopolization of a technology market, and not a physical product market. Samsung’s argument that only physical product markets are cognizable was novel, but many courts have accepted technology markets as relevant markets. As have the DOJ and the FTC.
- The court also rejected Samsung’s argument that Apple had not adequately alleged market or monopoly power. Under Illinois Tool Works, of course, patents do not establish market power. But where a patent is incorporated into an industry standard, and where the standardization of the patented technology prevented the development of other proprietary technologies, the entity that caused the Standard Setting Organization (“SSO”) to adopt its technology may have market power, the court held.
- Finally, the court reiterated that an SSO can be used to obtain monopoly power and create anticompetitive effects on the relevant markets. That can occur in a consensus-oriented private standard-setting environment, when a patent holder’s intentionally false promises to license essential proprietary technology on FRAND (fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory) terms is coupled with the SSO’s reliance on that promise when including the technology in a standard, and the patent holder subsequently breaches that promise. Allegations of false FRAND commitments are subject to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 9(b)’s heightened pleading standard, which Apple met.
Moral of the story: a robust and properly-framed SSO manipulation complaint can be difficult (though not impossible) to dismiss.